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Posted by Gür Alp on 1 Haziran 2015 Pazartesi

3 Nisan 2013 Çarşamba

Anatomy of Spine - vertebrae

Anatomy of Spine - vertebrae

In human anatomy, the vertebral column usually consists of 24 articulating vertebrae,and 9 fused vertebrae in the sacrum and the coccyx. It is situated in the dorsal aspect of the torso, separated by intervertebral discs. It houses and protects the spinal cord in its spinal canal, and hence is commonly called the spine, or simply backbone.
There are normally thirty-three (33) vertebrae in humans, including the five that are fused to form the sacrum (the others are separated by intervertebral discs) and the four coccygeal bones that form the tailbone.
The upper three regions comprise the remaining 24, and are grouped under the names cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae) and lumbar (5 vertebrae), according to the regions they occupy. This number is sometimes increased by an additional vertebra in one region, or it may be diminished in one region, the deficiency often being supplied by an additional vertebra in another. The number of cervical vertebrae is, however, very rarely increased or diminished

The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It encloses and protects the spinal cord and supports the trunk of the body and the head. The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three bones called vertebrae. A joint that stabilizes the vertebral column and allows it to move connects each pair of vertebrae. Between each pair of vertebrae is a disk-shaped pad of fibrous cartilage with a jelly-like core, which is called the intervertebral disk-or usually just the disk. These disks cushion the vertebrae during movement.

The entire spine encloses and protects the spinal cord, which is a column of nerve tracts running from every area of the body to the brain. The vertebrae are bound together by two long, thick ligaments running the entire length of the spine and by smaller ligaments between each pair of vertebrae. The anterior longitudinal ligament consists of strong, dense fibers, located inside the bodies of the vertebrae. They span nearly the whole length of the spine, beginning with the second vertebrae (or axis), and extending to the sacrum. The ligament is thicker in the middle (or thoracic region). Some of the shorter fibers are separated by circular openings, which allow for the passage of blood vessels. Several groups of muscles are also attached to the vertebrae, and these control movements of the spine as well as to support it.

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